原创考研英语时事阅读12-11 08:02

摘要: 导读在现行的科技时代,高等教育越来越受重视,但是高校的学费制定却是一个大问题。美国的做法是由学生自己负担,但

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在现行的科技时代,高等教育越来越受重视,但是高校的学费制定却是一个大问题。美国的做法是由学生自己负担,但是学生要承受高额的负债,而欧洲大陆的一些国家是由政府出资,导致国家在教育方面的投资严重不足,生源比例也不协调。于是专家们就开始研究如何制定学费才符合自己国家的基本国情照顾到大部分学生。

Paying for universities

支付大学学费

The merits of going English

现存的英式制度的好处

Why educationalists like the English system of tuition fees financed by loans on easy terms

为什么教育学家喜欢以分期付款形式进行资助的英制学费制度

Aug 10th 2017

UNIVERSITY used to be for a privileged few. In some countries it is now almost a rite of passage. Although that is excellent news, few countries have worked out how to pay for it. In some of continental Europe, where the state often foots the bill, the result has usually been underinvestment. In America, where students themselves pay, many have little choice but to take on huge debts.

大学曾经是为享有特权的极少数人准备的。而现在在某些国家上大学几乎是人生必经的阶段。尽管那是个极好的消息,但很少有国家找出了如何支付大学费用的办法。在一些欧洲大陆国家,费用通常由国家承担,最终导致投资金额不足。而在学生自己支付费用的美国,许多人毫无办法只能承担高额的债务。

  • Rite  n. 仪式;惯例,习俗;典礼

  • Foot the bill  负担费用,付帐

  •  Underinvestment  n. 投资不足


English policymakers thought they had struck the right balance, with a mix of student fees and generous state loans that has found admirers abroad. But, nearly two decades after youngsters were first required to contribute to tuition costs, the system has dwindling support at home. Jeremy Corbyn, Labour’s leader and many students’ favourite political philosopher, speaks as though it were designed to keep the poor from tainting the ivory towers. He has called for an end to the “debt burden” on students, and has claimed that “fewer working-class young people are applying to university.” Labour’s showing at the recent election suggests many young voters agree.

英国政策制定者们认为他们已取得了恰当的平衡,在国外已经有对学生费用和慷慨的国家贷款这两者的结合的赞誉之声。但是,在年轻人们第一次被要求为学费付出贡献之后的近二十年后,国内的这一体制正减小支持的力度。Jeremy Corbyn,一个工党领袖和许多学生喜爱的政治哲学家,认为似乎这一制度的制定好像是为了让穷人远离象牙塔。他为学生呼吁“债务负担”的结束,并声称“在申请大学的劳动阶级的年轻人越来越少”。工党在最近的选举中的表现表明,许多年轻选民同意这一提议。

  • Dwindle  v. 减少;变小

  • Taint  vt. 污染;腐蚀;使感染 

  • Call for an end to  呼吁停止 

  • Working-class  adj. 工人阶级的;劳动阶级的


Mr Corbyn’s argument betrays a disregard for the facts, a poor understanding of student finance, or both. Twenty years ago English students could go to university free, with the state covering the cost. The result was many struggling institutions and strict limits on the numbers of students universities were allowed to take. Annual tuition fees allowed an expansion of higher education, from around 30% of 18-year-olds to more than 40%—and the proportion of youngsters going to university from poor parts of the country has grown from one-in-ten to three-in-ten. Even after the most that universities were allowed to charge was nearly trebled in 2012, to £9,000 ($14,000), the number of poor students has continued to grow.

Corbyn的论据却透露出了对事实的忽视,对学生经济状况的理解不足,亦或是两者都有。二十年前英国学生可以因国家负担费用而免费上大学。结果是大学可以采取很多竞争制度并严格限制学生数量。每年的学费容许高等教育人数的扩张,从18岁年轻人中30%左右的比例增长到超过40%比例,并且读大学的年轻人中来自国内贫困地区的所占的比例从十分之一上升到十分之三。甚至在2012年大学收费涨了三倍达到9000法郎(14000美元)贫困学生人数还在持续增长。

  • Treble  adj. 三倍的;最高声部的;三层的;三重的

That is because loans for tuition are combined with gentle repayment terms. Graduates only pay back based on their income above £21,000 a year, meaning that their debts never become unmanageable. Outstanding loans are written off after 30 years. So those who do not do well financially from their education do not have to pay. Critics argue that tuition fees exacerbate inequality between generations (rich oldsters attended university free, after all), but the alternative would be greater inequality within generations—as poorer students were once again frozen out when capacity fell, and relatively wealthy graduates were subsidised from general taxation.

那是因为学费贷款和不苛刻的偿还期限结合在了一起。毕业生们只根据年薪超过21000英镑的部分偿还贷款,这意味着他们的债务永远不会变得难以处理。未还清的贷款将在30年后一笔勾销。所以那些接受过教育但经济上不富裕的人们不用偿还贷款。评论家们认为学费加剧了世代的不平等(毕竟那些富有的老人也是免费上的大学),但是这种替代方式会造成贫富间更严重的不平等,——因为家境不太好的学生曾因能力下滑而被逼走,而有同样问题的富家毕业生却获得了普通税收的资助。

  • Write off  勾销;取消;很快地写好

  • Exacerbate   vt. 使加剧;使恶化;激怒

  • Freeze out  冻死;逼走

  • Subsidise  vt. 资助(等于subsidize);给...补助金

Competition cure   

竞争疗法


The real problem with the English system is not fairness, but that fees have not driven up standards, as many officials had hoped. Almost all universities charge the maximum, whatever the course—not because they are a “cartel”, as some say, but because no university wants to suggest that it offers a cut-price, second-rate degree. Nevertheless, surveys indicate that students have seen little improvement in teaching. Many universities spend the extra money on fancy buildings and big salaries for senior managers instead.

真正存在于英国制度中的问题并不是公正问题,而是学费未按照很多官员们期望的那样抬高标准。几乎所有的大学都要收取最大的费用,不论什么课程,不仅因为他们是同业联盟,如一些人所说,而是因为没有大学希望表明它提供了一个廉价的二流的学位。然而,调查表明学生在教学方面几乎没有进步。反而很多大学将额外的钱花在了奇特的建筑以及高层管理者的高工资上。

  • Drive up  抬高;开车赶到;迫使…上升

  • Cut-price   adj. 廉价的;打折扣的


One answer would be to promote competition by giving students better information—such as which universities benefit their students most (see our calculations). The government has relaxed the rules for new institutions in the hope that they will develop new teaching methods and drive down prices. It could also encourage students to hold universities to account, with devices such as learning contracts specifying what undergraduates should expect, and by helping them switch courses if they are dissatisfied.(读者试译句) If students think they are not getting value for money, support for a scheme that is fair and progressive will dwindle. And that could lead to the most regressive step of all: scrapping tuition fees.

一种办法就是通过给学生更优化的信息来促进竞争——例如哪些大学对学生更有益(见我们的计算结果)。政府已放宽了对新院校的规则,希望他们能研究出新的教学方法并压低费用。(期待您的翻译,明天将会有针对这句话的长难句解析哟~)如果学生认为他们收获的并非物有所值,这个公平而大有进步的方案支持率将减少。而这会导致退化到最原始的时候:取消学费。

  • Drive down  压低;驾车驶去

  • Regressive  adj. 回归的;后退的;退化的


翻译 ▍望舒,Eileen,静水

审核 ▍竞风之翼

图文编辑 ▍毛毛

责任编辑 ▍毛毛

Try to translate 

 It could also encourage students to hold universities to account, with devices such as learning contracts specifying what undergraduates should expect, and by helping them switch courses if they are dissatisfied.

Put Chinese below

Tips

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音频和英文原文来自《经济学人》

2

原文请订阅《经济学人》官方正版

3

注:以上所有图片均来源于网络

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